Faculty with Distinction
LIU Chongxuan
Chair Professor


Chongxuan Liu is a Chair Professor at Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech) in the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering. Liu holds a Ph.D degree in Environmental Engineering from the Johns Hopkins University, Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering. He was a chief scientist at US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory before joining the SUSTech. His research area is in the environmental geochemistry and biogeochemistry, primarily focusing on the kinetics of contaminant transformation and reactive transport; multiscale science and scaling of geochemical and biogeochemical reactions; and treatment technologies of heavy metals and radionuclides in contaminated water and soils. His current research is in river critical zone science, focusing on the kinetics of rock weathering and rate scaling and watershed-scale hydro-biogeochemistry of nutrients and contaminants in groundwater and surface water interaction zones, and in the area of environmental technologies including the treatment technologies of metals and radionuclides in contaminated surface and groundwater, and soils. He is the PI or Co-PI for over 20 projects, and authored and co-authored over 150 peer-reviewed articles. He was named the fellow of Geological Society of America (GSA) in 2011.

Present Employment:

Chair Professor: School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology


1994-1998    Ph.D., Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University

1992-1994    M.S., Low-Temperature Aqueous Geochemistry, University of Alabama

1982-1984    M.E., Hydrogeochemistry, Zhejiang University, China

1978-1982    B.S., Geology, Zhejiang University, China


Work Experience:

2016-present, Chair Professor, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology

2015- present, Scientist (Level V), Geochemistry group, Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, PNNL, Richland, Washington. ( Part-time)

2006-2015, Scientist (Level V), Geochemistry group, Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, PNNL, Richland, Washington.

2003-2006, Senior Research Scientist (Level IV), Geochemistry, Fundamental and Computational Science Directorate, PNNL, Richland, Washington .

2000-2003, Senior Research Scientist (Level III), Environmental Dynamics and Simulations, Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, PNNL, Richland, Washington .

1998-2000, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Environmental Dynamics and Simulations, Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, PNNL, Richland, Washington .


Personal Awards:

2011:  Elected Fellow of The Geological Society of America (GSA).

2004: The U.S. energy department of basic energy research outstanding contribution award

Research Interests:

1. The hydrological biogeochemical process of C, N and pollutants in groundwater and surface water interaction area

2. The multi-scale behavior and theory of pollutants in soil and sediment

3. Microbial community structure features and co-evolution of hydrological biogeochemical processes

4. Microbial degradation and fixation technology

5. Environmental Material


1. Physical and chemical processes for environmental engineering

2. Mass transfer and diffusion

3. Environmental biotechnology

4. Aquatic chemistry

[144] Li M, W Qian, Y Gao, L Shi, and C Liu*, 2017, A Functional Enzyme-based Approach for Linking Microbial Community Functions with Biogeochemical Process Kinetics, Environ. Sci. Technol. Submitted.

[143] Tian R, Chen J, Sun X, Li D, Liu C*, and Weng H*, 2017, Explosive algae growth mechanism enabling weather-like forecast of harmful algal blooms, Science, submitted.
[142] Zhifeng Yan, Katherine E Todd-Brown, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Vanessa L Bailey, Chongxuan Liu1,3*, A Moisture Function of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration Derived from Pore-scale Mechanisms, Nature/communication, submitted.
[141] Dai Z, L Tian, C Liu*, H Weng*, 2017, Chlorobenzene release during thermal drying of sludge: Mechanism and source, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, submitted.
[140] Peyton SA, Bond-Lamberty B, Brian W. Benscoter BW, Tfaily M, Hinkle CR, Liu C, and Bailey VL, 2016, Precipitation versus groundwater: rewetting source affects soil carbon loss after drought, Nature/communication, Submitted.
[139] Yan Z, C Liu*, Y Liu, VL  Bailey, 2017, Pore-scale Investigation on Biofilm Distribution and its Impact on Macroscopic Biogeochemical Reaction Rates, Water Resources Research, Submitted.
[138] Yan A, C Liu*, Y Liu, and F Xu: 2017, Effect of ion exchange on the rate of aerobic microbial oxidation of ammonium in hyporheic zone sediments, Environmental Process and Pollution Research, submitted.
[137] Dai Z, M Su, X Ma, G Wang, D Li, C Liu*, H Weng*, 2017, Sludge drying using flue gas and its environmental benefits, Drying Technology, in press.
[136] Xu F, Y Liu, M Bowen, A Plymale, D Kennedy, JM Zachara, C Liu*,, 2017, Chromium Redox Transformation and Reductive immobilization of Cr in Columbia River Hyporheic sediments, Journal of Hydrology, In press.
[135] Li M, Gao Y, Qian W, Shi L, Liu Y, Nelson W C, Nicora CD, Resch CT, Thompson CJ, Fredrickson JK, Zachara, JK, and Liu C.*, 2017, Quantification of functional enzyme dynamic and its linkage with biogeochemical process kinetics, Environmental Microbiology Letter, in press.
[134] Liu Y, Liu C*, Nelson WC, Shi L, Xu F, Liu YD, Yan A, Zhong L, Thompson C, Fredrickson JK, and Zachara JM, 2017, Effect of Water Chemistry and Hydrodynamics on Nitrogen Transformation Activity and Microbial Community Functional Potential in Hyporheic Zone Sediment Columns, Environ. Sci. Technol. 51, 4877-4886
[133] Liu Y, F Xu, C Liu*, 2017, Coupled Hydro-Biogeochemical Processes Controlling Cr Reductive Immobilization in Columbia River Hyporheic Zone, Environ. Sci. Technol.,51, 1508-1517.
[132] Yan Z, Liu C*, K E. Todd-Brown, Y Liu, B Bond-Lamberty, V L Bailey, 2016, Pore-scale investigation on the response of heterotrophic respiration to moisture conditions in heterogeneous soils, Biogeochemistry, 131, 121-134
[131] Xie X, Liu Y, Pi K, Liu C, Li J, Duan M, Wang Y, 2016, In situ Fe-sulfide for arsenic removal under reducing conditions, Journal of Hydrology, 534, 42-49, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.12.057

[130] Bond-Lamberty B, H Bolton, S Fansler, C Liu, J Smith, and V Bailey, 2016, Soil respiration and bacterial structure and function after 17 years of a reciprocal soil transplant experiment, PLOS One, 11(3): e0150599. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150599

[129] Zachara, J., Brantley, S., Chorover, J., Ewing, R.P., Kerisit, S., Liu, C. Perfect, E., Rother, G, and Stack, A. 2016. Internal domains of natural porous media revealed: Critical locations for transport, storage, and chemical reaction. Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 2811-2829

[128]  Zhang X, C Liu*, BX Hu, Q Hu, 2016, Statistical analysis of additivity models for scaling reaction rates: An example of multi-rate U(VI) surface complexation in sediments, Mathematical Geosciences, 48, 511–535

[127] Zhu W, M Shi, D Yu, C Liu, T Huang, and F Wu, 2016, Characteristics and kinetic analysis of AQS transformation and microbial goethite reduction: Insight into “redox mediate-microbe-iron oxide” interaction process, Scientific Report, 6, 23718, doi:10.1038/srep23718

[126] Xie X, P Fu, C Liu, J Li, Y Zhu, C Su, T Ma, and Y Wang, 2016, In situ remediation by aquifer iron coating: Field trial in the Datong basin, China, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 302, 19-26

[125] Yan S. Y Liu, C Liu*, L Shi, J Shang, H Shan, J Zachara, J Fredrickson, D Kennedy, C Resch, C Thompson, and S Fansler, 2016, Nitrate bioreduction in redox-variable low permeability sediments, Science of Total Environment, 539, 185-195

[124] Song H-S and C Liu, 2015, Modeling biological denitrification process: the Cybernetic approach, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 54, pp 10221–10227

[123] Liu Y, C Liu*, RK Kukkadapu, JP McKinley, JM Zachara, AE Plymale, MD Miller, TV, CT Resch, 2015, 99Tc(VII) Migration, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 13403-13412

[122] Liu C, Y. Liu, S Kerisit, JM Zachara, 2015, Pore-scale process coupling and effective surface reaction rate, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 80, 191-216

[121] Munusamy P, C Wang, MH Engelhard, DR Baer, JN Smith, C Liu, VK Kodali, BD Thrall, S Chen, AE Porter, MP Ryan and, 2015, Comparison of 20nm silver nanoparticles synthesized with and without a gold core: structure, dissolution in cell culture media, and biological impact on macrophages, Biointerphases, 10, 031003-1 to 031003-6

[120] Liu Y, C Liu*, C Zhang, X Yang, and JM Zachara, 2015,  Pore- and continuum-scale study of the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 163, 140-155

[119] Fang Y, C. Liu, and L. R. Leung, 2015, Accelerating the spin-up of the coupled carbon and nitrogen cycle model in CLM4, Geosci. Model Dev. 8, 781-789

[118]  Xie, X., Wang, Y., Fu P., Liu, C., Li, J., Liu, Y., Wang, Z., Duan, M.,Mapoma, H., 2015, In situ treatment of arsenic contaminated groundwater by aquifer iron coating: Experimental Study, Science of the Total Environment, 527, 38-46

[117] Weng H, Z Dai, Z Ji, C Gao, and C Liu*.  2015.  Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge drying. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 296, 61-67

[116] Fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of aqueous PBDEs.  Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry 2015:853085.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/853085

[115] Yang X, C Liu*, R Hinkle, H-Y Li, V Bailey, and B Bond-Lamberty, 2015, Simulations of ecosystem hydrological processes using a unified multi-scale model, Ecological modeling, 296:93-101.  doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.032

[114] Fang Y, C Liu, M Huang, H Li, R Leung, 2014, Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index, J. Adv Modeling Earth Systems, 6, 1049-1064

[113] Xie X, Y Wang, A Ellis, C Liu, M Duan, and J Li.  2014.  "Impact of sedimentary provenance and weathering on arsenic distribution in aquifers of the Datong basin, China: Constraints from elemental geochemistry."  Journal of Hydrology 519(2014):3541-3549

[112]  Yan S, Y Chen, W Xiang, Z Bao, C Liu, and B Deng, 2014, Uranium(VI) reduction by nanoscale zero-valent iron in anoxic batch systems: the role of Fe(II) and Fe(III), Chemosphere, 117, 625–630

[111]  Wang Z, JM Zachara, J Shang, C Jeon, J Liu, and C Liu, 2014, Investigation of U(VI) adsorption in quartz-chlorite mineral mixtures, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 7766-7773, DOI: 10.1021/es500537g

[110] Kerisit SN and C Liu, 2014, Molecular dynamics simulations of uranyl and uranyl carbonate adsorption at alumino-silicate surfaces, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 3899-3907

[109] Wang D, C Su, C Liu, B Gao, Y Wang, X Hao, D Zhou, and 2014, Transport of fluorescently labeled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated granular media at environmentally relevant concentrations of surfactants, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 457, 58-66

[108] Ma R, C Zheng, C Liu, J Greskowiak, H Prommer, and J M Zachara, 2014, Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport under Highly Transient Flow Conditions, Water Resour. Res., 50, doi:10.1002/2013WR013835

[107] Yang X, C Liu, J Shang, Y Fang, and V Bailey, 2014, A Unified Multi-Scale Model for Pore-Scale Flow Simulations in Soils, Soil Soc. Sci. Am. J., 78, 108-118, DOI10.2136/sssaj2013.05.0190

[106]  Liu C, J Shang, H Shan, JM Zachara, 2014, Effect of subgrid heterogeneity on scaling geochemical and biogeochemical reaction rates, a case study of U(VI) desorption, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 1745-1752. DOI10.2136/sssaj2013.05.0190

[105] Shang J, C Liu*, Z Wang, and J Zachara, 2014, Long-term kinetics of U(VI) desorption from Sediments, Water Resour. Res., doi:10.1002/2013WR013949

[104] Weng H-X, X-W Ma, F-X Fu, J-J Zhang, Z Liu, L-X Tian, C Liu*, 2014, Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights, J. Hazard. Mater. 265, 96-103

[103] Zhang X, Liu C*, Hu B X, Zhang G, 2014, Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of Uranyl desorption from sediment, J. Contam. Hydrol., 156, 1-15

[102] Ma, R, C Liu, J Greskowiak, H Prommer, C Zheng and JM Zachara. 2014. Influence of Calcite on Uranium(VI) Reactive Transport in the Groundwater-River Mixing Zone. J. Contam. Hydrol., 156, 27-37

[101] Zachara, J M; I S Eugene, C Liu, 2013, Reactive Transport of the Uranyl Ion in Soils, Sediments, and Groundwater Systems, Canadian Mineralogical Society, Special Issue: Uranium: Cradle to Grave, 43, 255-300

[100] Fang Y, M Huang, C Liu, H Li, LR Leung, 2013, A Generic Biogeochemical Module for Earth System Models, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1979-1988

[99] Kerisit S and C Liu, 2013, Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) cation, J. Phy. Chem., 117, 6421-6432

[98] Liu J, C I Pearce, C Liu, Z Wang, L Shi, E Arenholz, and K M Rosso, 2013, Titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4) Nanoparticles as Tunable Probes of Microbial Metal Oxidation, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 24, 8896-8907

[97]  Zhang C, Liu C*, Shi Z., 2013, Micromodel Investigation of Transport Effect on the Kinetics of Reductive Dissolution of Hematite, Environ. Sc. Technol., 47, 4137-4139

[96] Zachara JM, PE Long, J Bargar, JA Davis, PM Fox, JK Fredrickson, MD Freshley, A Konopka, C Liu, JP McKinley, ML Rockhold, KH Williams, and S Yabusaki, 2013, "Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone."  J. Contam. Hydro., 147, 45-72

[95] Ma R, C Zheng, and C Liu.  2013, Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment, in Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, ed. Robert A Meyers, pp. 4774-4784, Springer, New York

[94] Stoliker DL, C Liu, DB Kent, and JM Zachara.  2013.  Characterizing particle-scale equilibrium adsorption and kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from U-contaminated sediments, Water Resour. Res., 49, 1163-1177

[93] Liu C, J Shang, SN Kerisit, and JM Zachara.  2013.  Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 105, 326-341

[92] Shang J, C Liu, and Z Wang, 2013.  Transport and retention of engineered nanoporous particles in porous media: Effects of concentration and flow dynamics, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 417, 89-98

[91] Kerisit S and C Liu, 2012. Diffusion and adsorption of uranyl carbonate species in nanosized mineral fractures”, Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 1632-1640

[90] Li J, K Zhu, J Shang, D Wang, Z Nie, R Guo, C Liu, Z Wang, X Li, and J Liu.  2012.  "Fluorescent functionalized mesoporous silica for radioactive material extraction, Separation Science and Technology, 47 1507-1513

[89] Liu J, Z Wang, SM Belchik, M Edwards, C Liu, DW Kennedy, ED Merkley, MS Lipton, JN Butt, D Richardson, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, KM Rosso, and L Shi.  2012.  "Identification and Characterization of MtoA: a Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome of the Neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES1." Frontiers in Microbiological Chemistry : Article No.37.  doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00037

[88] Liu C, and Y Fang.  2012.  Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes.  Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 3(5):1000e109.  doi:10.4172/2157-7463.1000e109

[87]  Ewing, RP, C Liu, and Q Hu, 2012, Modeling intragranular diffusion in low-connectivity granular media. Water Resour. Res. 47, W03518. Doi:10.1029/2011WR011407

[86] Sheng P, Hu Q, Ewing R, Liu C, and Zachara, JM., 2012, Quantitative 3-D Elemental Mapping by LA-ICP-MS of Basalt from the Hanford 300 Area, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 2025-2032

[85] Bishop ME; H. Dong RK Kukkadapu; C Liu; RE Edelmann, 2011, Microbial reduction of Fe(III) in multiple clay minerals by Shewanella putrefaciens and reactivity of bioreduced clay minerals toward Tc(VII) immobilization, Geochim. Cosmochim Acta, 75, 5229-5246

[84] Wang Z, JM Zachara, J-F Boily, Y Xia, TC Resch, DA Moore, C Liu, 2011, Determining individual mineral contributions to U(VI) adsorption in a contaminated aquifer sediment: A fluorescence spectroscopy study, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta , 75, 2965-2979

[83] Shang, J, C Liu, and J.M. Zachara. 2011. Effect of grain size on U(VI) surface complexation kinetics and adsorption additivity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 6025-6031

[82] Liu, C, J Shang, and J. M. Zachara. 2011. Multi-species diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion. Water Resour. Res. 47, W12514, doi:10.1029/2011WR010575

[81] Greskowiak, J., M. B. Hay, H. Prommer, C Liu, V. E. Post, R. Ma, J. A. Davis, C. Zheng, and J. M. Zachara. 2011. Simulating adsorption of U(VI) under transient groundwater flow and hydrochemistry – Physical versus non-equilibrium model.  Water Resour. Res. 47 W08501, doi:10.1029/2010WR010118

[80] Ma R, C Zheng, H Prommer, J Greskowiak, C Liu, JM Zachara, and ML Rockhold, 2010, A field-scale reactive transport model for U(VI) migration influenced by coupled multi-rate mass transfer and surface complexation reactions, Water Resour. Res. 46, W05509, doi:10.1029/2009WR008168

[79] Istok JD, M Park, M Michalsen, AM Spain, LR Krumholz, C Liu, J McKinley, P Long, E Roden, A D Peacock, B Baldwin, 2010, A thermodynamically-based model for predicting microbial growth and community composition coupled to system geochemistry, J. Contam. Hydrol., 112, 1-14

[78] Greskowiak J, H Prommer, C Liu, V Post, R Ma, C Zheng, and JM Zachara.  2010.  "Comparison of parameter sensitivities between a laboratory and field scale model of uranium transport in a dual domain, distributed-rate reactive system, Water Resour. Res. 46:W09509, doi:1029/2009WR008781

[77] Shang J, C Liu*, Z Wang, H Wu, K Zhu, J Li, and J Liu, 2010, In-situ measurements of engineered nanoporous particle transport in saturated porous media, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 8190-8195

[76] Kerisit S and C Liu, 2010, Molecular simulation of the diffusion of uranyl carbonate species in aqueous solution, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 4937-4952

[75] Um W, JM Zachara, C Liu, DA Moore, and KA Rod.  2010.  Resupply Mechanism to a Contaminated Aquifer: A Laboratory Study of U(VI) Desorption from Capillary Fringe Sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 5155-5170

[74] Um W, JM Zachara, C Liu, 2010, U(VI) Desorption from Capillary Fringe Sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 74, 1065

[73] Ewing R, Q Hu, and C Liu, 2010, Scale dependence of intra-granular porosity, diffusivity, and tortuosity, Water Resour. Res., 46, W06513, doi:10.1029/2009WR008183

[72] Liu C, L Zhong, JM Zachara, 2010, Uranium(VI) diffusion in low-permeability subsurface materials., Radiochimica Acta, 98, 719-726

[71] Peretyazhko, T., Zachara, J. M., Kukkadapu, R. K. Liu C., 2010, Reactions of Tc with Fe(II) and O-2 in Hanford redox-sensitive sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,74, 807

[70] Yan S, B Hua, Z Bao, J Yang, C Liu and B Deng, 2010, Uranium(VI) removal by nanoscale zerovalent iron in anoxic batch systems, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 7783-7789

[69] Shi Z, C Liu, JM Zachara, Z Wang, and B Deng, 2009, Inhibition effect of secondary phosphate mineral precipitation on uranium release from contaminated sediments, Environ. Sci. Tchnol., 43(21):8344-8349

[68] Liu C, Z Shi, and JM Zachara, 2009, Kinetics of uranium(VI) desorption from contaminated sediments: Effect of geochemical conditions and model evaluation, Environ. Sci. Technol . 43, 6560-6566

[67] Liu C, JM Zachara, L Zhong, SM Heald, Z Wang, B-H Jeon, JK Fredrickson, 2009, Microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) in contaminated sediment, Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 4928-4933

[66] Kerisit SN, and C Liu, 2009, Molecular simulations of water and ion diffusion in nano-sized mineral fractures, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 777-782

[65] Fredrickson JK, JM Zachara, AE Plymale, SM Heald, JP McKinley, DW Kennedy, C Liu, Nachimuthu P, 2009, Oxidative dissolution potential of biogenic and a biogenic TcO2 in subsurface sediments Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 2299-2313

[64] Qafoku N, PE Dresel, JP McKinley, C Liu, SM Heald, CC Ainsworth, JL Phillips, and JS Fruchter.  2009.  "Pathways of aqueous Cr(VI) attenuation in a slightly alkaline oxic subsurface, Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(4):1071-1077

[63] Qafoku N, L Zhong, C Liu, BW Arey, AV Mitroshkov, RG Riley, 2009, Physical control on CCl4 and CHCl3 desorption from artificially contaminated and aged sediments with supercritical carbon dioxide, Chemosphere, 74, 494-500

[62] Jaisi DP, H Dong, AE Plymale, JK Fredrickson, JM Zachara, and C Liu.  2009, Reduction and long-term immobilization of technetium by Fe(II) associated with clay mineral nontronite, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 5361-5371

[61] Zachara JM, T Peretyazhko, C Liu, CT Resch, S Heald, R Kukkadapu, 2009, Nature and reactivity of ferrous iron forms through a subsurface redox transition zone probed by contact with the pertechnetate anion, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 73, 1494

[60] Bai J, C Liu, WP Ball, 2009, Study of sorption-retarded U(VI) diffusion in Hanford site/clay material, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 7706-7711.

[59] Wang Z, KB Wagnon, CC Ainsworth, C Liu, KM Rosso, and JK Fredrickson,  2008, A Spectroscopic Study of the effect of Ligand Complexation on the Reduction of Uranium (VI) by AH2DS, Radiochim. Acta, 96, 599-605

[58] Wang Z, JM Zachara, C Liu, PL Gassman, AR Felmy, and SB Clark, 2008, A cryogenic fluorescence spectroscopic study of uranyl carbonate, phosphate and oxyhydroxide minerals, Radiochim. Acta, 96(9-11):591-598

[57] Wellman DM, JM Zachara, C Liu, N Qafoku, SC Smith, and SW Forrester.  2008, Advective Desorption of Uranium (VI) from Contaminated Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments under Saturated and Unsaturated Conditions, Vadose Zone J., 7, 1144-1159

[56] Ilton ES, N Qafoku, C Liu, D Moore, and JM Zachara, 2008, Advective removal of intraparticle uranium from contaminated vadose zone sediment, Hanford, USA, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 1565-1571

[55] Jaisi DP, C Liu, H Dong, RE Blake, and JB Fein.  2008, Fe(II) Sorption to Nontronite (NAu-2), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72(22):5361-5371

[54] Peretyazhko T, JM Zachara, SM Heald, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, AE Plymale, and CT Resch, 2008, Reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) sorbed on Al (hydr)oxides, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 5499-5506.

[53] Marshall MJ, AE Plymale, DW Kennedy, L Shi, Z Wang, SB Reed, AC Dohnalkova, CJ Simonson, C Liu, DA Saffarini, MF Romine, JM Zachara, AS Beliaev, and JK Fredrickson, 2008, Hydrogenase- and outer membrane c-type cytochrome-facilitated reduction of technetium(VII) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Environ. Microbiol., 10, 125–136

[52] Wang Z, C Liu, X Wang, MJ Marshall, JM Zachara, KM Rosso, M Dupuis, JK Fredrickson, SM Heald, L Shi, 2008, Kinetics of reduction of Fe(III) complexes by outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74(21):6746-6755

[51] Kerisit SN, C Liu, and ES Ilton, 2008, Molecular dynamics simulations of the orthoclase (001)- and (010)-water interfaces, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,72, 1481-1497.

[50] Peretyazhko T, JM Zachara, SM Heald, B Jeon, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, DA Moore, and CT Resch, 2008, Heterogeneous reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) at the solid-water interface, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 1521-1539

[49] Liu C, JM Zachara, N Qafoku, and Z Wang, 2008, Scale-dependent desorption of uranium from contaminated subsurface sediments, Water Resour. Res. 44, W08413, doi: 10.1029/2007WR006478

[48] Liu C, 2007, An ion diffusion model in semi-permeable clay materials, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 5403-5409.

[47] McKinley J P, JM Zachara, SC Smith, and C Liu.  2007, Cation exchange reactions controlling desorption of 90Sr2+ from coarse-grained contaminated sediments from the Hanford formation, Washington. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 305-325.

[46] Fang J. Z Gu, D Gand, C Liu, ES Ilton, and B Deng, 2007, Cr(VI) Removal from aqueous solution using a commercial activated carbon coated with quaternized poly(4-vinylpyrine), Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4748-4753.

[45] Jaisi DP, H Dong, and C Liu, 2007, Influence of biogenic Fe(II) on the rate and microbial reduction of Fe(III) in clay minerals Nontronite, Illite, and Chlorite. Geochim. Comochim. Acta, 71, 1145-1158.

[44]  Liu C, JM Zachara, B-H Jeon, Z Wang, A Dohnalkova, and JK Fredrickson, 2007, Influence of calcium on microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI), Biotechnol. Bioeng., 97, 1415-1422.

[43] Jaisi DP, H Dong, and C Liu, 2007, Kinetic analysis of microbial reduction of Fe(III) in Nontronite, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 2437-2444.

[42] Liu C, JM Zachara, NS Foster-Mills, J Strickland, 2007, Kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite by bioreduced anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41 7730-7735.

[41] Zachara JM, B-H Jeon, SM Heald, RK Kukkadapu, C Liu, AC Dohnalkova, JP McKinley, and DA Moore,  2007, Reduction of pertechnetate [Tc(VII)] by aqueous Fe(II) and the nature of solid phase redox products, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 2137-2157.   

[40] Liu C, B-H Jeon, JM Zachara, Z Wang, A Dohnalkova, and JK Fredrickson, 2006, Kinetics of microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI), Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 6290-6296.

[39] McKinley JP, JM Zachara, C Liu, SM Heald, 2006, Microscale controls on the fate of contaminant uranium in the vadose zone, Hanford Site, Washington, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70, 1873-1887.

[38] Liu C, JM Zachara, W Yantasee, PD Majors, JP McKinley, 2006, Microscopic reactive diffusion of uranium in the contaminated sediments at Hanford, USA. Water Resour. Res., 42, W12420, doi:10.1029/2006WR005031.

[37] Ilton ES, SM Heald, SC Smith, D Elbert, and C Liu, 2006, Reduction of uranyl in the interlayer region of low iron micas under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 5003-5009.

[36] Ilton ES, C Liu, W Yantasee, Z Wang, D Moore, and JM Zachara, 2006, The dissolution of synthetic Na-boltwoodite in sodium carbonate solutions, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70, 4836-4849.

[35]  Qafoku, NP; Zachara, JM; Liu, C, 2005, Uranium(VI) desorption from long-term contaminated sediments隐藏域, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 隐藏域隐藏域470 隐藏域

[34]  Wang Z, JM Zachara, PL Gassman, C Liu, O Qafoku, and JG Catalano.  2005. Fluorescence spectroscopy of U(VI)-silicates and U(VI)-contaminated Hanford sediment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 69, 1391-1403.

[33]  Ainsworth CC, JM Zachara, KB Wagnon, SG McKinley, C Liu, SC Smith, HT Schaef, and PL Gassman, 2005, Impact of highly basic solutions on sorption of Cs+ to subsurface sediments from the Hanford Site, USA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 4787-4800.

[32] Felmy, AR; Liu, C; Straatsma, TP, 2005, The importance of diffusion at the microbe-mineral interface: Electrical double layer effects and the impact on precipitation/dissolution隐藏域, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 隐藏域69 隐藏域171 隐藏域

[31] Dong W, WP Ball, C Liu, Z Wang, A T Stone, J Bai, and JM Zachara, 2005, Influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) sorption to a Hanford subsurface sediment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 7949-7955.

[30] Liu C, JM Zachara, L Zhong, RK Kukkadapu, JE Szecsody, and DW Kennedy,  2005, Influence of sediment bioreduction and reoxidation on uranium sorption."  Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 4125-4133.

[29] Qafoku N, JM Zachara, C Liu, PL Gassman, O Qafoku, and SC Smith., 2005, Kinetic desorption and sorption of U(VI) during reactive transport in a contaminated Hanford sediment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 3157-3165.

[28] Zachara JM, JP McKinley; C Liu, Z Wang, J Catalano, G Brown, N Qafoku, 2005, Molecular speciation, mineral residence, and geochemical behavior of U in contaminated subsurface sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 618

[27] Zhong L, C Liu, JM Zachara, DW Kennedy, JE Szecsody, and BD Wood, 2005, Oxidative dissolution of biogenic U(IV) precipitates: Effects of Fe(II) and pH. J. Environ. Qual., 34, 1763-1771.

[26] Liu C, JM Zachara, and SC Smith, 2004, A Cation Exchange Model to Describe Cs+ Sorption in High Ionic Strength in Subsurface Sediments at Hanford Site, USA, J. Contam. Hydrol., 68, 217-238.

[25] Liu C, JM Zachara, AR Felmy, and YA Gorby, 2004, An Electrodynamics-Based Model for Ion Diffusion in Microbial Polysaccharides, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 38, 55-65.

[24] Wang Z, JM Zachara, W Yantasee, PL Gassman, C Liu, and AG Joly, 2004, Gryogenic Laser Induced Fluorescence Characterization of U(VI) in Hanford Vadose Zone Pore Waters, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38:5591-5597.

[23] Liu C*, JM Zachara, O Qafoku, JP McKinley, SM Heald, and Z Wang, 2004, Dissolution of uranyl microprecipitates from subsurface sediments at Hanford Site, USA, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68, 4519-4537.

[22] Fredrickson JK, JM Zachara, DW Kennedy, RK Kukkadapu, JP McKinley, SM Heald, C Liu, Plymale AE, 2004, Reduction of TcO4- by Sediment-Associated Biogenic Fe(II), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68, 3171-3187.

[21] Liu C, JM Zachara, SC Smith, JP McKinley, CC Ainsworth, 2003, Desorption Kinetics of Radiocesium from the Subsurface Sediments at Hanford Site, USA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 2893-2912.

[20] Liu C, JM Zachara, O Qafoku, and SC Smith, 2003, Effect of Temperature on Cs+ Sorption and Desorption in Subsurface Sediments at Hanford Site, USA, Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 2640-2645.

[19] Fredrickson JK, S Kota, RK Kukkapadu, C Liu, and JM Zachara, 2003, Influence of Electron Donor/Acceptor Concentrations on Hydrous Ferric Oxide (HFO) Bioreduction, Biodegradation 14, 91-103

[18] Lin Y, C Liu, H Wu, HK Yak, and CM Wai, 2003, Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Toxic Heavy Metals and Uranium from Acidic Solutions with Sulfur-Containing Organophosphorus Reagents, Industrial Eng. Chem. Res. 42, 1400-1405.

[17] Liu C, and WP Ball, 2002, Back Diffusion of Chlorinated Contaminants from a Natural Aquitard to a Remediated Aquifer under Well-Controlled Conditions: Predictions and Measurements, Ground Water, 40, 175-184.

[16] Ball WP and C Liu, 2002: Diffusion-Limited Contamination and Decontamination in a Layered Aquitard: Forensic and Predictive Analysis of Field Data, in Resource Recovery, Confinement, and Remediation of Environmental Hazards, Ed.: John Chadam, Al Cunningham, Richard E. Ewing, Peter Ortoleva, and Mary Fanett Wheeler, 131, 179-194, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.

[15] Fredrickson JK, JM Zachara, DW Keneddy, C Liu, MC Duff, DB Hunter, and A Dohnalkova, 2002, Influence of Mn Oxides on the Reduction of U(VI) by the Metal-Reducing Bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens,  Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 3247-3262.

[14] Liu C, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, DW Kennedy, and A Dohnalkova, 2002, Modeling the Inhibition of the Bacterial Reduction of U(VI) by -MnO2(s), Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 1452-1459.

[13] Liu C, YA Gorby, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, and CF Brown, 2002, Reduction Kinetics of Fe(III), Co(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), and Tc(VII) in Cultures of Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 80: 637-649.

[12] Zachara JM, SC Smith, C Liu, JP McKinley, RJ Serne, and PL Gassman, 2002, Sorption of Cs+ to Micaceous Subsurface Sediment from the Hanford Site, USA, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 66, 193-211.

[11] Kukkadapu RK, JM Zachara, SC Smith, JK Fredrickson, and C Liu,  2001.  Dissimilatory Bacterial Reduction of Al-Substituted Goethite in Subsurface Sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65, 2913-2924.

[10] Liu C, S Kota, JM Zachara, JK Fredrickson, and CK Brinkman, 2001, Kinetic Analysis of the Bacterial Reduction of Goethite, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 2482-2490.

[09] Liu C, JM Zachara, YA Gorby, JE Szecsody, and CF Brown, 2001, Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) and Sorption/Precipitation of Fe(II) on Shewanella putrefaciens, strain CN32, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 1385-1393.

[08] Liu C and JM Zachara, 2001, Uncertainties of Monod Parameters Nonlinearly Estimated from Batch Experiments, Environ. Sci. Technol. 35, 133-144.

[07] Liu C and WP Ball, 2000, Analytical modeling of diffusion-limited contamination and decontamination in a two-layer porous me, Adv. Water Res. 24, 225-226.

[06] Liu C, JE Szecsody, JM Zachara and WP Ball, 2000, Use of the Generalized Integral Transform Method to Solute Transport with Nonlinear Sorption and Nonlinear Reaction in Heterogeneous Porous Media, Adv. Water Res. 23, 483-492.

[05] Liu C and WP Ball, 1999, An application of Inverse Methods to Contaminant Source Identification from Contaminant Diffusion Profiles at Dover AFB, DE, Water Resour. Res. 35, 1975-1985.

[04] Liu C, WP Ball, and JH Ellis, 1998, An Analytical Solution to Advection-Dispersion Equation in Multi-Layer Porous Media, Transport in porous media 30, 25-43.

[03] Liu C and WP Ball, 1998, Analytical Modeling of Diffusion-Limited Contamination and Decontamination in a Two-Layer Porous Medium, Adv. Water Res. 21, 297-313.

[02] Donahoe RJ and C Liu, 1997, Porewater Geochemistry near the Sediment-Water Interface of a Zoned, Freshwater Wetland Located in the Southeastern United States, Environ. Geol. 33, 143-153.

[01] Ball WP, C Liu, G Xia, and D Young, 1997, A Diffusion-Based Interpretation of Tetrachloroethene and Trichloroethene Concentration Profiles in a Groundwater Aquitard, Water Resour. Res. 33, 2741-2758.